gen-


gen-
    gen-
    English meaning: to pinch, pluck, press, etc..
    Deutsche Übersetzung: as basis for extensions der meaning “zusammendrũcken, kneifen, zusammenknicken; Zusammengedrũcktes, Geballtes”
    Note: (Persson Beitr. 88 f.); therefrom are gnegh-, gneig-, gner-, gnes-, gneus- only Gmc.
    Material: 1. gn-ebh-: Gk. perhaps γνάμπτω “ bend, make curved; wind; arch, make arched, make vaulted; incline, bow “ (formal as in the meaning but influenced through κάμπτω); O.N. knafa ‘sodomize”, compare “compress, squeeze women”; with pp: Du. knap “ joining (*pressing, squeezing), narrowly, brief, fast “, N.Ger. knap ‘short, spare, small” (out of it Ger. knapp), Nor. knapp “narrow, short, concise”, with bb: knabbe “ pinch, cut off”; further with the meaning “ fold up the jaws “ and “ snap one’s fingers “ and out of it deriving sound suggestions of Swe. knäppa “ crack, snap, clink “, Du. knappen “break, crack, creak”, N.Ger. knappern, knuppern “ crunch, nibble “, Ger. knabbern “bite, gnaw “; finally as “the crushed, clenched, rounded “ under likewise O.N. knappr “ bump, bulge, gnarl, handle, knob “, O.E. cnæpp “ mountaintop (bulging); brooch, pin, clasp “ (from “ nub, button, knop, knob “), N.Ger. knap(p) “ mountain top, tableland, hill, plateau, elevation, heel of the boot”; Maybe Alb.Gheg (*knappen) thembën “heel” [common Alb. k- > s- > th- phonetic mutation]. N.Ger. knappen “ cut off, shorten; live briefly “; from Slav. perhaps here Pol. gnębić, old gnąbić (with secondary nasal vowel as a result of preceding n) “press, distress, maltreat, stir, tease, irritate”; compare also genebh-, S. 378 f. 2. gnegh-: Swe. knagg “ knot, knag”, M.Eng. M.L.G. knagge “knag, thick piece”; with Gmc. kk: O.N. knakkr “ foot (at tables, chairs), footstool (foot block) “. Here also O.H.G. kneht, Ger. Knecht, O.E. cniht “knave, boy, youngling, servant, warrior” (*kneh-ta-, compare to meaning Knabe, Knebel under likewise, to t-suffix Ger. bO.Ir. knũchtel “cudgel, club, bludgeon”). 3. gn-eibh-: Gk. γνίφων “ skinflint, scrooge, cheapskate, curmudgeon “ (if not because of older recorded Κνίφων, Meisterhans-Schwyzer 74, with secondary anlaut softening, so that with O.N. hnippa “bump, poke” to the parallel root *ken-, kn-eib(h)-); O.N. kneif “kind of pliers “, knīfr, O.E. cnīf “knife”, Ger. dial. kneif “knife”; besides with Gmc. pp, p: M.L.G. knīp, Ger. dial. kneipf “knife”, Nor. dial. knīpa, M.L.G. knīpen (out of it Ger. kneifen figurative) “ nip, squeeze tightly between two surfaces, pinch, break off by pinching, squeeze, press “ (partly also “ be thrifty, stingy; run short, be used up, be exhausted, running out of; pinch; run away “; s. similar under gnebh-), nd. knippen “cut, clip”, Ger. knippsen, nd. knipperig “ stingy, fugal, spare, thrifty “, Ger. Kniff (also = thievish, sneaky trick under likewise), M.L.G. knippen “ blink, wink the eye, wink”; Lith. gnūbiu, gnūbti, Iterat. gnáibau, gnáibyti “ pinch (with the fingers or tongs) “, besides šný biu, žný bti ds., Trautmann 93. 4. gneig-: O.N. kneikia “press, clamp “, Nor. dial. kneikja “ bend backward “; M.L.G. nd. Ger. knicken, wherefore Knicks “ knee-bend, flexure, bowing, bending “. 5. gner-: Nor. knart, knort “knag, knot, unreifes Obst”, M.Eng. knarre “ hunch, outgrowth, knag”, M.H.G. knorre “knag” under likewise; besides O.H.G. kniurig “knorrig”, M.H.G. knūr(e) “ knot, knag, Klippe, mountain top “ with ablaut neologism. 6. gnes-: Nor. knast m. “knag” = nd. hd. Knast; M.L.G. knōster “gristle”, Du. knoest “knag”, M.Du. knoes “gristle”, knoesele “ankle”; Nor. dial. knös (*knōsia-) “ large mighty beggar “, Swe. knase “ big, rich, obstinate, inflexible person “. 7. gnet-: O.H.G. knetan, O.E. cnedan st. V. “knead”, zero grade O.N. knoða , -aða “knead”; with Gmc. tt O.N. knǫttr (*knattu-z) “ball, sphere”, knatti “ brow, edge of a hill or cliff “, Nor. knott m. “ short and thick body, knag, knot “, Swe. dial. knatte “ small bush”; O.C.S. gnetǫ, gnesti “press”, O.Pruss. gnode f. “ trough for kneading the bread “ (*gnōtü), Trautmann 93. Maybe nasalized Alb. (*ghnes-) ngjesh “press” common Alb. gh- > gj- phonetic mutatIon. 8. gn-eu-: O.N. knȳja “press, hit”, O.E. cnū(w)ian “in mortar zerstoßen” (O.E. cnéowian “ coire “, as Swe. knulla ds. compared with M.H.G. knũllen “bump, poke, hit”); O.N. knūi “ knuckle “; O.S. knūla, knyla “ knag, knot in trees, foot ankle “; Maybe Alb. (*knyla) nyja “ knag, knot” [common Alb. kn - > n- phonetic mutation] Serb. gnjáviti “press”, Sloven. gnjáviti “press, ruffle, crease, crumple, wrinkle, strangle, throttle, choke “. 9. gn-eu-bh-: Ir. gnobh “ knot in the wood, knot, node “ (*gnubho-); O.N. knȳfill m. “ short, just come out horn “, E.Fris. knūfe “clot, chunk, clump, knag”; O.N. kneyfa “press”; Nor. knuva “ press, squash, crush “, E.Fris. knūfen, N.Ger. knuffen “bump, poke, kick”; with *ŭ: M.L.G. knovel “ knot, ankle”; M.H.G. knũbel “ankle”; with Gmc. p(p) (consonant-sharpening): Nor. dial. knupp m. “bud”, M.L.G. knuppe, knoppe “bud”, knuppel = M.H.G. knũpfel “club, cudgel” (these N.Ger.), O.H.G. knopf “ knot, knag, knop, knob “, Swiss chnopf “knot, knop, knob, bud, small kid, child” (in addition knũpfen; a derivative is Knospe, there probably from *knup-sōn-), and o-grade M.L.G. knōp m. “knot, knop, knob, handle, button, pommel “, M.H.G. knouf, Ger. Knauf; with Gmc. bb: Nor. knubb m. “clot, chunk”, M.L.G. knobbe “knag”, M.Eng. knobbe (Eng. knob) “bud, knop, knob, knag, knot”, Nor. knubba “bump, poke, kick, press”; Lith. gniáubti “ comprise, enfold, hug, embrace, hold tight “ (*gnēubh-), gniùbti “ lose stability, fall, sink “; if from gniáužti (under 10.) through influence of gnūbti (above 3.)? 10. gn-eu-ĝ-: O.N. knjūkr “round mountain top “, Nor. dial. knjuka, knoka “ankle”, O.N. knykill “ small knot”; M.L.G. knoke m. “bone”, M.H.G. knoche “bone, knag, bundle”; Maybe Alb. (*knyk) kyc “ankle” O.E. cnycel (?), M.L.G. knokel, M.H.G. knũchel, Ger. Knöchel; but O.N. knoka “hit, knock”, Nor. dial. knoka “ press, squash, crush “, O.E. cnocian, cnucian “ knock at a door, thrust in the mortar “, M.H.G. knochen “press” stand in ablaut to O.S. knaka “crack, creak” and indicate to onomatopoeic words ĝneg- (Wissmann 79), whereat also Kluge11 s. v. knacken; with Gmc. -kk-: M.L.G. knocke, M.Eng. knucche, Eng. knitch “bundle”, M.H.G. knock “ nape, cervix, neck “. Lith. gniáuž-iu, -ti “ close the hand firmly “, gniū̃ žis, gniū́ žte , gniáužta “bundle, handful “, gniùžti “ bend, fall, lose firmness “ (“*fold up, double or bend something over upon itself “), Ltv. gnaûzt “grasp with the hand, press” (Ltv. žń augt “ strangle, throttle, choke “ from *gńauž-?); compare (above 9.) Lith. gniáubti. 11. gn-eu-s-: O.N. knosa, -aða “ abuse with blows “, Nor. knysia “ crunch, munch, chew with the teeth; pulverize, grind into fine particles “, O.H.G. knussen “hit, crush”, O.E. cnyssan “ crush, grind “; with ū O.S. knusa = N.Ger. knūsen “press, squeeze”, O.N. knūska “hit”, Ger. Swiss chnūssen, chnūschten “thrash”; O.N. knylla “hit, bump, poke” (*knuzljan, s. also above under gneut- about Knollen) = O.E.cnyllan “hit”, nd. knũllen (knullen from *knuz-lōn) “ to press together, zerknũffeln “, M.H.G. knũllen “hit, bump, poke, cuff, strike, slap, pommel, push, shove, thrust “; O.N. knauss m. “ round mountain corner “; with ū M.L.G. knūst m. “knag”, Swiss chnūs “knag, clump”; with ŭ Nor. knust, knysta “ coiled chunk, knag”, schwed dial. knose “ hunch, outgrowth “ (figurative bO.Ir. knös “ a youth, lad “, Swiss chnösi “thick man, husband”, nrhein. knösel “ dwarf, crippled being, unripe fruit “). 12. gn-eu-t-: O.H.G. knŏdo (*knŭÞan-) “ knop, knob, ankle, bud”, M.H.G. knödel “ ovary, dumpling, small mass of dough which is boiled or steamed “, O.H.G. knoto (*knuðá n-), Ger. KNOTE n, whereof O.H.G. knutil, Ger. Knũttel “thick stick” (actually “ knotty walking stick “); O.E. cnotta m., M.L.G. knutte “tubers, flax bud “, M.H.G. knotze “knag”, M.L.G. knulten “ knit, tie, bind, knot “ = O.E. cnyttan, Eng. knit ds. and with the originally meaning “ to press together “ bO.Ir. knauzen “ to press together “, nd. knutschen, M.H.G. knũtzen ‘squeeze, push, shove, thrust “; O.N. knūtr (*knūdn-) “knot, knag”, knūta “ capitulum, head of a bone, end of a bone “, knȳta “ tie, bind, knot “; M.H.G. knūz “(* gnarled, snaggy, knobbed rising arms against, daring, bold, audacious, perky, cheerful; bold; impudent “; M.H.G. knolle “clod of earth, clump”, O.E. cnoll m. “mountaintop, mountain peak, summit, acme, apex “ (if from *knuð-lá- or *knuz-lá for the root form *g(e)n-eu-s-); Lith. gniutù, gniùsti “press”, gniutúoti ds., gniùtelė “ pole for pressing of the straw with the roof cover “, gniùtulas “ bales, paper, lump, clump”, gnùtulas “clump, fist-size clump”
    References: WP. I 580 ff., Wissmann nom. postverb. 83, 132.
    See also: compare also under ken-.

Proto-Indo-European etymological dictionary. 2015.

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